Greening the refining process.
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"Multiplicity ought not to be posited without necessity."

Occam's Razor
William of Ockham (1285-1349)


Otherwise stated:
Everything should be as simple as possible, but not simpler.

Published Articles


Hydrocarbon World

Taking Occam’s Razor to Refining

The philosophy of William of Ockham (1285–1349) is the inspiration for a unique pump innovation used for petrochemical refining. Split Flow™ simplifies the current practice of selecting multiple or oversize pumps for dual service applications. In doing so, Split Flow embodies the maxim, “everything should be as simple as possible, but not simpler.” (See full article, pages 63-65.)


Hydrocarbon Processing

Pump Innovation Reduces Motor Size
Hydrocarbon Processing, January 1998.
Split Flow incorporates an auxiliary low-flow impeller in an API Standard 610 overhung process pump, which effectively becomes two pumps-in-one. The Split Flow concept saves energy by allowing use of smaller motors.

Split Flow Inline Vertical Pumps: A New Option
Hydrocarbon Processing, February, 2002, by Heinz Bloch; with addendum.
This modification uses the same pump case, primary impeller and bearing bracket as standard pumps. Only the case cover and shaft are modified to incorporate the auxiliary impeller; the case cover and shaft are modified to incorporate auxiliary impeller; the case cover seal chamber remains in compliance with API 682.

Pump Modification Reduces Capital Cost
Hydrocarbon Processing, September 1998. Selected by Les Kane, Stephany Romanow-Garcia and David Nakamura, Editors
Big Split Flow is an adaptation of the API Standard 610 two-stage, between-bearings centrifugal process pump. This adaptation allows two, like-liquid services to be satisfied by a single pump.


Pumps and Systems Magazine

API Process Pump Innovation Results in Significant Cost Savings
Split Flow is a unique design modification wherein a pump inlet flow is separated into two outlet flowstreams: a high-flow, low-head main stream and a lower-flow, higher-head slipstream. The pump effectively becomes two pumps in one with a common suction and both primary and secondary discharges.

Low Flow Options
Process requirements often demand capacities below those achievable with a conventional centrifugal pump.

American Petroleum Institute Literature

API Standard 610, 8th Edition
August 1995
Discusses the importance of energy conservation during the equipment selection process. "Innovative energy-conserving approaches should be aggressively pursued by the manufacturer."

Igor J. Karassik

Smoke or Substance?
Igor Karassik discusses some misconceptions about desirable construction features of centrifugal pumps.

Centrifugal Pump Operation at Off-Design Conditions
A three-part series which examines the performance of centrifugal pumps operating at flows either higher or lower than the rate for which they were designed to achieve their highest efficiency. Published in Chemical Processing, April (part 1), May (part 2), June 1987 (part 3).

Pump Users Symposium: A Name Well Chosen
By Igor Karassik
Without pumps, civilization as we know it today could not exist.

In Memoriam

A Life Well Traveled
Igor Karassik (1911-1995) contributed to the pump industry with an elegant meld of technical development, commercial reality, and education. By J. T. (Terry) McGuire

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Split Flow API centrifugal pumps: Save energy, reduce carbon emissions.